GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS IN ADOLESCENTS (BASED ON SELF-REPORTS OF CHILDREN AND PARENTS)
F.I. Barsky, I.A. Voronin, M.M. Lobaskova, E.D. Gindina, S.B. Malykh
Psychological Institute of RAE, Moscow
The aim of our study is to assess the contributions of genetic and environmental variation in the phenotypic variability of parent-child relationships in adolescents based on self-report and parent ratings. The sample included 241 families with children – mono- and dizygotic twins aged 10 to 17 years (M=14, SD=2) from Izhevsk, Moscow and St. Petersburg. Characteristics of parent-child relationships were estimated using I.M. Markovskaya’s parent-child interaction questionnaire (child and parent forms). Data were processed using structural modeling. A number of characteristics of parent-child relationships (child-reported) are influenced by genetic factors – Consistency-Inconsistency scale (mother’s form), Autonomous Control (mother’s and father’s forms) and satisfaction with the relationship with the parent (parent form). The four parameters of relationships with the father (Demanding-Non-demanding, Softness-Strictness, Emotional Distance-Proximity, Satisfaction with a relationship) demonstrated significant contributions of shared environment. The generality of the etiology of children’s assessments of their relationship with mothers and fathers was largely due to genetic factors (Autonomy-Control and Consistency-Inconsistency) and shared environmental factors (Emotional distance-Proximity, Satisfaction with a relationship). At the same time, children’s reports were significantly different from the parents’, the etiology of which was largely explained by shared environment.
Keywords: parent-child relationships, adolescents, genotype, environment, twins, gene-environment correlation, parenting.