THE STRUCTURE OF RELATIONSHIPS OF COGNITIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS AT SCHOOL AGE
T.N. Tikhomirova, I.A. Voronin, E.B. Misozhnikova, S.B. Malykh
Psychological Institute RAE, Moscow
The paper analyzes the structure of relationships of cognitive characteristics - speed of information processing, working memory, number sense and non-verbal intelligence, and success in learning at primary, lower and upper secondary education levels. In a sample of 1650 students we showed that the structure is defined by the model which is universal for any school age: the speed of information processing is a key predictor of intelligence, working memory and number sense, which, in turn, contribute to individual differences in academic success. We found age differences in the relations within the structure. In particular, it was found that at the primary and lower secondary levels, the most significant is the relationship of the speed of information processing with the overall academic success mediated by non-verbal intelligence. At the upper level of secondary education we found no relationship of cognitive performance and academic success.
Keywords: academic success, cognitive characteristics, speed of information processing, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, number sense, school age, structural modeling.