Genetic and environmental factors in shaping the individual features of temperament in children of primary school age
Ju.O. Novgorodova1, O.E. Muhordova1, V.G. Sivakova2, M.M. Lobaskova1, Ph.I. Barsky3, S.B. Malykh3
1 Udmurt State University, Izhevsk; 2 Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Bishkek; 3 Establishment of RAO "Psychological Institute, Moscow
We estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the variability characteristics of temperament in children of primary school age. To assess the characteristics of temperament, we used the Russian-language parental version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, M.K. Rothbart. Sample of the study was 170 children (85 twin pairs) from 7 to 10 years, of which 49 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 36 pairs of same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins. Contributions of genetic and environmental factors were evaluated by simulation using linear structural equations. Using factor analysis identified three common factors: «Attention – Control», «Extraversion – positive emotions», «Fear – negative emotions». The most significant contributions to the genotype were obtained for indicators such as «Fear», «Inhibition control», «Shyness» and «Depressive mood». Contributions of shared environment were significant for the scales «Activation control», «Aggressiveness», «Frustration» and «High-intensity Pleasure». Two common factors of the upper level corresponding to the control and positive emotions were associated with the effects of «Common environment», while the factor of negative emotions is influenced by genotype.
Keywords: genotype, environment, temperament, primary school age, self-control, positive emotionality, negative emotionality.